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Balochi Literature بلوچی ادب => بلوچی لبزانک، چمشانک ءُ ﺁزمانک => Topic started by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:33:34 AM

Title: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:33:34 AM
CHAPTER 7
Balochi Oral Literature
Josef Elfenbein 1
It was in the early nineteenth century, as a consequence of the westwards expansion of the British in India, that the Balochi language first came to the notice of Europeans, and several brief sketches of it were written (for the most important of these see LSI X, 2 p. 335). By 1880 three good grammatical descriptions had been published (those of Pierce, Marston, and Mockler; see LSI X) and the first scientific studies of the language, by a leading Iranist Wilhelm Geiger, were written in the next few years.
It had also been noticed that a substantial amount of oral literature appeared to exist— much more than expected— and small collections of it were made and published in the early nineteenth century, mainly by English missionaries in India. As is only to be expected, however, the published grammars showed little grasp of details like dialect geography, and the literary specimens had no pretensions to anything more than curiosity value.
All of these collections were made and published by Europeans (Hittu Ram was employed in the Indian Civil Service); the sole exception known up to now is the BM Codex Oriental Additional 24048, which the present writer believes (it bears neither colophon nor date) was prepared c 1820 in Kalat, Baluchistan, at the request of H. H. Wilson, later Boden Professor of Sanskrit in Oxford. It is well known that during his time in India Wilson was an enthusiastic collector of specimens of the exotic languages of the Subcontinent,

1 This article was written in 1998. At the author’s request, the system of transcription normally used in academic publications is adopted in the Chapter.
2LSI X is used throughout for Grierson 1921 (Ed.). 167

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 167.
Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:34:29 AM
ORAL Literature OF IRANIAN Languages
and it is most likely that this manuscript was prepared especially at his request (see Elfenbein 1983).
The end of the prehistory of Balochi studies and the beginning of systematic and scientific studies is marked by the appearance of M. L. Dames, whose works from the 1880s marked a watershed. In them we see for the first time a large collection of Balochi classical ballads and other poetry, as well as many prose narratives. Dames’ publications superseded all previous studies, and with only a few reservations are still usable today. But there was at the time little stimulus locally for native Baloch to continue Dames’ work, and Balochi was, to all intents and purposes (except for European writings), an unwritten language.
But Dames had shown concretely what had until then only been suspected, that there indeed existed a large body of oral literature, mostly in the form of ballads, as well as quite a large number of the expected little stories in prose, which only awaited collection and recording. But such an enterprise had to await, with only a few exceptions, the period after the creation of Pakistan in 1947, when a new stimulus for undertaking such labor could work upon a new generation of educated native Balochis.
Balochi literature can be fairly clearly divided into four periods: (1) The classical period from perhaps the sixteenth century to c 1700; (2) A post-classical period to c 1800; (3) The nineteenth century; (4) The modern period after c 1930. 1. the classical period up to the modern period all Balochi literature is oral, preserved only in the memories of poets, professional reciters, or amateur enthusiasts, all of whom were, of course, illiterate. Such enthusiasts were, at least until very recently, much more numerous than might be imagined; in the 1980s most villages contained at least a few. All of our information on the oral periods of Balochi literature comes from them, and it is only thanks to the efforts of literate collectors of these traditions in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries,

168
Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 168.


Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:35:04 AM
BALOCHI Literature
who patiently listened to ballad recitals and wrote down what they heard (but not necessarily understood), that we have any information at all about earlier literature.
The main written sources are collections by M. L. Dames; Mohammad Sardar Khan Baloch; Shêr Muhammad Marî; Elfenbein 1990 (mostly from written sources, but checked orally); Mâhtâk Balôčî; Mîr ʿĪsâ Qômî (whose unparalleled manuscript library was mainly collected by himself from oral recitations, shared with the present writer during a long visit to him in Turbat in 1961); the periodicals Nôkên Dawr and Ulus have also occasionally published short pieces; for a fuller list see Jahani (1989, pp. 25– 33, 229– 30).
The literature of the classical and post-classical periods consists entirely of ballads. Prose of a literary quality makes its appearance only in the modern period. Before the twentieth century, hardly any attempt was made by the Baloch themselves to write their language; but after 1947 “Balochi Academies” sprang up in Pakistan, societies whose purpose was to stimulate new writing and collect the classical, so as to make the written word play a role in Balochi society. The center of Balochi literary culture has always resided in what is now Pakistan, particularly in Quetta and Karachi; nothing of any lasting importance in this regard has ever emerged from Iran. In Afghanistan after 1978 Balochi was accorded the status of “national language” and some publications have appeared from Kabul. (sporadic publications in the Gulf States and in East Africa by emigrant Baloch communities are not included in this discussion).
script and dialect
Only variants of the Arabic script have ever come seriously into question for native writing in Balochi. The first Balochi writing was in the Pashto script, with the usual problems of vowel representation. Dames and other Europeans used the modified Roman script usually employed by Christian missionaries (mainly British) in India; it is, in the main, quite acceptable. Geiger, of course, used the scientific script employed by Iranists. There have been official efforts in Pakistan, especially since 1960, to adopt a Roman script
169
Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 169.


Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:35:44 AM
ORAL Literature OF IRANIAN Languages
for Balochi, but they have come to nothing; the script used today in Pakistan for Balochi is based on urdu, whereas that adopted in Afghanistan is based on Pashto.
There are six dialects in Balochi, of which two have long ago achieved prestige status as vehicles for classical balladry: Coastal dialect, and Eastern Hill Balochi, with some use of Kêčî. 3 These dialects have long exercised a strong influence on other dialects. Co is relatively uniform over its whole area, but EHB has a number of widely varying sub-dialects; writing in it tends to be in the variety used in the Marî-Bugî tribal area. Ke is without important sub-dialects.
Here a word must be said about dialects in Balochi literary composition. Oral transmission over centuries by speakers of all dialects has inevitably meant that dialects get mixed in transmission; a sort of mixed dialect is used in nearly all ballads except those in Co dialect, and balladry in EHB is strongly influenced by the Co dialect as well. By general consent, Co is the proper dialect for classical and post-classical ballads, with EHB coming second. A tradition exists in which speakers of other dialects (now also) often try to imitate the Co dialect in literary composition, even when they do not know it well. The result is a peculiar mishmash, with false Co dialect forms popping up in writings by speakers of other dialects. Similarly, Ke is often the preferred dialect for literary prose, with the same sorts of mixtures. Rakhšânî is by far the most widely spoken dialect, but it is only in the modern period that it is used at all for literary composition.
Eastern Hill Balochi is the dialect of all the publications of Dames, since all of his reciters came from the territory in the extreme east, British Baluchistan. It is also the native dialect of both Shêr Muhammad Marî and of Muhammad Sardar Khan Baloch. Mîr ʿĪsâ Qômî (hereafter Qômî) lived in Turbat and spoke Kêčî. 3 On dialects see Elfenbein, “Baluchistan III,” “Baločî”; for fuller notes on dialect characteristics see Elfenbein, Anthology, vol. 2, pp. vii– xviii. The following abbreviations will be used here: Ra = Raxšânî; Co = Coastal; EHB = Eastern Hill Balochi; Ke = Kêčî; Sar = Sarawânî; La = Lâškârî. For a full description of dialect characteristics, see Elfenbein 2003. 170

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 170.


Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:36:25 AM
BALOCHI Literature
the composition by individuals of classical oral ballads The tradition that many ballads were composed by important chiefs, themselves the individuals named in the short prose prefaces to them, or by (anonymous) professional bards who were attached to the various tribes, is worth taking seriously. In fact, most of the ballads are prefaced by a short introduction of fairly standard form, giving the authorship; it runs “X son of Y sings; of the fight at Z he sings”; or “X son of y sings; he challenges/replies to z and sings.” The word used for “sings” (and so translated by e.g. Dames) is gušît, the ordinary word for “says, speaks.” But Dames was certainly right in supposing that classical ballads were in fact “sung,” though perhaps “chanted” would be a better word. It was not customary for a chief or other important person to recite his own poetry; the custom was rather for him to teach it, line by line, to a professional reciter called often pahlawân (as in Persian), or more commonly ômb, lôŕî, or lângaw. These latter were professional reciters and musicians of much lower social status than the pahlawân, usually belonging to a special caste. It was usual to accompany the recital by music on an important occasion, in which the music followed the poetry in a fixed canon using one or more instruments such as the tabla (drum), surnâ (double-reed pipe), surôd (short-necked fiddle), dambûrô (long-necked fiddle), giraw (nose flute), or nar (flute). Recitals could also take place without music, and very popular from earliest time was the mušâʿîra, a sort of concert of poetry, in which several recitals took place. The occasions for composing a ballad are countless: any important event, such as a birth, death, wedding, harvest, battle, migration, etc. Once the reciter had learned the poem he could add it to his professional repertoire, and recite it elsewhere on any appropriate occasion, naming (or not) the true author. This, of course, greatly contributed to the tendency of ballads to become anonymous with the passage of time. 171

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 171.


Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:36:56 AM
ORAL Literature OF IRANIAN Languages
Daptars
A good claim to being some of the oldest poetry handed down can be made for the daptar šâʿirî “ballad of genealogy, register ballad.” Although not many of these ballads have been preserved, they have such a similarity of form and content, as well as the occasional linguistic archaism, that they are particularly interesting. Only six of them are known to me, all rather short; four of them have been published:
i. LSI X, pp. 370– 73, of sixty lines. It is basically in Coastal dialect, but very mixed with both Raxšânî and Persian (see below).
ii. Barker and Mengal 1969 II, pp. 273– 77, also in Coastal dialect, of seventy-two lines, of which only lines 22– 64 are a daptar: a Mullâ Šôrân (otherwise unknown) names himself in the poem as the author. iii. Barker and Mengal 1969 II, pp. 266– 67, of only nineteen lines, basically Coastal, but recited by a Raxšânî speaker.
iv. Dames 1907 I, pp. 1– 3, of seventy-six lines in Eastern Hill Balochi, of which only lines 11– 52 are a daptar. The last lines 53– 76 concern the thirty-year War (see below).
I have seen two others in Qômî’s collection, unpublished; both are in Coastal dialect and their content does not differ greatly from these.
The content of all these daptars is basically the same— the oldest migrations of the Baloch tribes, which runs as follows. The Baloch tribes rise up from their original home in Aleppo, all sons of “Mîr Hamza” (generally taken to refer to the uncle of the prophet Muhammad) to fight against the second Umayyad Caliph Yazid I at Karbalâ’ in 680. After Hoseyn is slain, the angered Balochi tribes wander away eastwards. It is clear that there is no real history in this narrative: nothing is said about the journey from Aleppo to Karbalâ, and there are no details of a Balochi battle engagement there. It seems clear that the point is to assure the Baloch a good Islamic pedigree. Thence the Baloch tribes continue their migration eastwards. The first places mentioned are Lâr and Rôdbâr: Lâr is, of course, in southern Iran, but “Rôdbâr” can be anywhere. The next places, 172

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 172.


Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:37:28 AM
BALOCHI Literature
which can be historical, are Pahra (= Fahraĵ) and Bampûr. Thence no places at all are mentioned until they arrive in Makrân, at Kêč. The mention of Kêč is common to all daptars: it was a place of central importance from very early times. From this point on the daptars suddenly become very much more detailed, with differing particulars. In all of them migration is steadily from west to east, identified places are named, in the right order, and real history can be contained in them. But this history, whilst containing a grain of truth, must in any case be of fairly late invention, for it really only begins with the arrival of the Baloch in south-east Iran, and details only appear with their arrival in Kêč. It seems clear that the lack of real memory of (or lack of interest in) events prior to their arrival in the eastern part of Baluchistan is because the real purpose of the daptars is not to recount early history but to furnish a background to the Rind-Lašârî Wars (see below). These migrations could have taken place at any time between the eighth and twelfth centuries, and at least a kernel of the ballads could be genuinely old, from perhaps the sixteenth century, when the wars took place. It is now generally agreed, mainly from linguistic evidence, that the real original Baloch home was somewhere to the southeast of the Caspian Sea, and that the Baloch migrations to the southeast of Iran began in late Sasanian times probably caused by the disorders attendant on Sasanian disintegration and the first Arab invasions in the seventh century. Whatever the details may be, it is certain that Baloch migrations from their original home did not take place all at once, but were rather spread over several centuries, probably in independent groups. Also to be borne in mind is that there were many reverse migrations, when tribes wandered back to previous dwellings or stations. It seems very likely that much of the Balochi population of Iran has migrated back from more easterly abodes; this is demonstrated by the fact that dialects of Balochi spoken mainly in Iran (Sarawânî, Lâšârî) contain the same IndoAryan loanwords as the other dialects, retaining their Indian phonology with the retroflex stops , , and ŕ, hardly loanwords from the east, and which could hardly have developed their phonology spontaneously on Iranian soil. 173

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 173.


Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:38:13 AM
ORAL Literature OF IRANIAN Languages
Mîr Ĵalâl Khan features in all ballads as the overall chief, before the division into the traditional bôlaks (tribes), but nothing is otherwise known of him. There are traditionally five tribes: Rind, Lâšârî, Hôt, Kôraî, and Ĵatôî, but the only two mentioned in the early parts of the daptars are the Rind and Lâšârî, the largest. The leaders mentioned are Jalâl Khân, Šayhak, Nôdbandag, and Čâkur. All of these except perhaps the first are anachronisms, interpolated from the sixteenth century. (Many individual lines from the daptars are known to practically everybody, and it is easy to see how famous names from a famous era could be inserted in what is in effect a cultural heritage: a reciting bard simply put in a name well-known to his audience.)

A quotation from part of a typical daptar may make these points clearer. Here is a possible reconstruction of the badly bowdlerized text given in LSI X. The text is based in part on the two other similar versions I have seen (but detailed commentary cannot be given here):
1. râĵâ ač halab zahr bîtant â rôč ki yazîd sar zîtant : The tribes from Aleppo became angry On the day that their heads were attacked by yazid

2. sultân šâh husayn kušta râjân purr hasad bad burta : Sultan Shah Hoseyn was killed The tribes, full of jealousy, bore it badly.
3. lâšâr mizzilê pêš kaptant nôdbandag saxîên rapta : The Lâšârî s advanced one stage (farther) Nôdbandag the Generous (went with them).
4. šahaykk pa padâ-ê gôn kapta rôdbârê darâ êr-kaptan: Šahayk went along after him They descended beyond Rôdbâr .
5. gwastant ač gîyâbên lârâ dêm pa pahraî bazaar: They passed by grassy Lar Facing the bazaar of Pahra.
6. bampûrê darâ ganĵênân : Beyond the boundaries of Bampûr …

The following three couplets mention no new names or places; then:
9. … lâšâr ništa mân lâšârâ

10. rind mân pahraî bâzârâ 
… The Lâšâri settled in Lâšâr The Rind in Fahraj town

The next places mentioned are:
174
Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 174.
 
Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:39:22 AM
BALOCHI Literature
14. gurrânâ šutant čô râdâ : In roaring they went like thunder.
kêč o makurân tâ sindâ : (To) Kêč and Makrân up to Sind.
The meter is a steady eight-syllable line in three feet, with the stress on the first syllable; the apparent extra syllable in couplet four is eliminated by reading padâ-ê as two syllables. Rhyme is very irregular, as expected in early verse. Archaisms are: râd; Makurân; bâzâr ‘settlement with a market.’ In other daptars we have Sêîstân as three syllables, nîδârâγ ‘resting place’ (now ‘stage in a theater’), the phrase kêč râstên pallawâ-int, ‘Kêč is on the right side,’ i.e. to the east, for marchers from Sistan.
It is not to be denied that, in the long transmission of these early ballads, the principle of lectio facilior has played an important role, making it very difficult to know how the ballads, if they are really old, originally looked. Balochi is by nature an extremely conservative language, and a thousand years ago it cannot have looked very different from what it is today: it is, for example, phonologically older than the Pahlavi of the third century inscriptions.
Classical poetry
Balochi classical poetry is most conveniently divided into several cycles of what may be called “heroic balladry,” and the main subject is tribal conflict. Most ballads, as mentioned above, begin with a short prose statement in which the composer names himself, usually as the main protagonist of the events of the ballad. But in the total lack of any details of the oral transmission, it is impossible to be sure. Dealt with are exclusively the (likely) historical events of the eastern parts of Baluchistan, in present-day Pakistan, from about 1500 ce onwards. There are, indeed, passing references to places in Iran, but none of them seem convincing. It is also impossible to say how old the originals of the ballads are, but the tradition that many of them are contemporaneous with the events they describe seems in many cases credible.
175

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 175.


Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:39:48 AM
ORAL Literature OF IRANIAN Languages
A brief description of the kind of society mirrored in the oldest ballads is a necessary preliminary. It is a “heroic” one, entirely tribal, hierarchical and male-dominated, in which the individual is entirely subordinated to his tribe. Women, however secondary, have a marked influence on many events: a principal cause of conflict was rivalry for their favors. Women’s purview is, however in principle the family, both before and after marriage, and only rarely do they take an active part in public life.
In classical times Baloch tribes were only loosely organized, with a chief, usually hereditary, at their head, assisted by his closest friends and advisors in council. The powers of a chief are, however, limited, and derive from the consent of his “subjects” and his Council, and an especially able or ambitious member of the tribe can always be a source of conflict. The chief’s principal functions are to uphold riwâĵ (see below) and to decide disputes both inside and outside the tribe. Here the Council of Elders plays a major role. This Council, or ĵirga of kamâš (graybeards), was in classical times not permanent but chosen by general consent for each occasion as it arose, but from the time of Nasîr Khan I of Kalat (r. 1749– 95) members of the Great Council were appointed on a permanent basis.
Baloch existence was at least until the fourteenth century— and thereafter also to a large extent— in the main nomadic, as is to be expected, given the barren and inhospitable nature of their territory. Only after this time did tribes begin to settle and acquire recognized lands, mainly for grazing sheep, goats, and camels, of which large herds were not uncommon. Grazing rights were also always a potential source of conflict. Agriculture and commerce of any sort were alien to the Balochi mentality until fairly recently. The main activities were stockbreeding, in which women could own their own herds independently, and fighting. For many tribes, even into the nineteenth century, fighting was the main purpose of life. Thus for men, life meant self-assertion over other men, usually with violence. But only in special cases did an individual actually engage in an act of violence, a raid, for example. The standard picture is one of a “group of heroes” acting for their tribe; probably the most serious punishment that could be meted out was to expel
176

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 176.


Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:40:19 AM
BALOCHI Literature
A man from his tribe and make him an outlaw. This is a fruitful source of much tragic balladry, for then a man must lose his grip on his own identity and be lost forever. The origins of many tribes are to be ascribed to criminal expulsions: the eponymous founder of the tribe was expelled from another tribe.
Life is thus entirely conditioned by tribal law (riwâĵ), unwritten until Nasîr Khan had it written down (in Persian) in the eighteenth century, but still all-powerful in classical times before then. The customs described above, together with the following specific duties prescribed by riwâĵ had always been deeply embedded in Balochi society. These three main duties, “pillars of Balochi tribal life” were:
i. bâhôdâri “(custom of) asylum.” It is required to offer to any person bâhô (asylum) upon request, with no questions asked. The person affording bâhô is the bâhôdâr and may expose himself to considerable personal risk; but in principle he may not refuse it, and must aid and succor his bâhô.
ii. mihmândârî (hospitality), offered to guests, mainly travelers, and lasts three days in principle. The mihmândâr (host) is often the tribal chief or his deputy.
iii. bêrgirî (revenge-seeking) is mainly inter-tribal, but can also be inter-familial. It is incumbent on all male tribal members, and in its working it illustrates very clearly the “impersonal” status of an individual member of a tribe. He is duty-bound to seek revenge for slights, insults, or wrongs done to him, his family, or even his tribe. As object of his revenge, anyone of an “equivalent status” may serve, any “equivalent member” i.e., a person of equivalent social status, of a family or tribe. The duty of revenge-seeking may neither be questioned nor avoided, and of course is the cause of many a tragedy when individual needs and desires conflict with the impersonal duty of a tribesman. The rule is thus “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.” Adultery required the murder of both guilty parties; forgiveness was not allowed.
A man who cares strictly for these things is “honorable” (nangdâr) and “honor” (nang) is what makes life meaningful— without it nothing is possible. One’s honor must be defended with one’s life,
177

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 177.


Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:40:57 AM
ORAL Literature OF IRANIAN Languages
if necessary. Of such stuff were Balochi heroes made, and often the Balochi hero is a tragic hero.
All collections of these “heroic cycles” are in the Pakistani Coastal, Eastern Hill, or Kêčî dialects. As far as can be ascertained, nothing in this category has been published in Afghanistan or elsewhere except for the brief specimens in zarubin 1930, which are in Raxšânî. 4 The original dialect of this poetry was undoubtedly Coastal (“Rindî”), and it is to be noted that Eastern Hill Balochi is most closely related to that dialect.
Historical confirmation of the events described has proved very difficult, but it has been possible to identify some proper names (though not of the Baloch) and some places; the locations are all to the east of Kêč in Pakistani Makrân, through Sibî and into West Panjab. None of the events take place in Iran or Afghanistan.
The Čâkur Cycle
This most important and extensive cycle concerns the events of the Rind-Lâšârî Wars of perhaps 1475– 1525, or possibly a bit later. A large amount of balladry about these wars has been composed, some of it likely to be contemporary or near-contemporary with the events described. Some of the older compositions have survived either as individual ballads ascribed to their authors or incorporated into other ballads. With the passage of time, different whole ballads got worked together, so that today it is difficult to identify the original components of a composition. During the eastwards migrations of the Baloch, two major tribes began to separate out, the Rind under Šayhak and his son Čâkur, and the Lâšârî under Gwaharâm (Eastern Hill Balochi: Gwâharâm). Relations, at first friendly, began steadily to worsen, especially after the death of Šayhak, and at last peace could no longer be maintained between them.

4 In Afghanistan, Raxšânî is the officially approved dialect. For its early use see zarubin, “K izucheniu Beludzhskogo ïazyka i fol’klora.” Sarawânî and Lâškârî are only spoken in Iran, and are not written. 178

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 178.
Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:41:28 AM
BALOCHI Literature
There was a rich young woman named Gôhar, of the Mahêrî subtribe of the Lâšârî, and who perhaps lived near Bampûr (according to one version; this cannot be right). She was courted by Gwaharâm, whose suit she spurned. There is a fair amount of unpublished poetry containing an exchange of messages between the two; Gwaharâm sends love-messages, and Gôhar spurns them, apparently because of consanguinity (not usually a hindrance in Balochi society, where first-cousin marriage is quite usual). But in one unpublished version of the affair, Gwaharâm already has four wives and refuses to divorce one of them to make a place for Gôhar.
Gôhar, together with her camel herds, seeks refuge (bâhôdârî) with Čâkur, who accepts her and undertakes her protection. In most versions, Čâkur lives near Sibî. He himself begins to court Gôhar, who for her part prefers him. There is a colorful exchange of insults between Gwaharâm and Čâkur, the (unpublished) ballads purporting to be the original compositions of each. It is finally agreed to settle the matter by a horse race, to be run by Rêhân Rind and Râmên Lâšâr, who also happened to be good friends. Both are said to have composed ballads about the race, which turned out to be a neck-and-neck affair. The Rind judges however award the winner’s prize to Rêhân Rind, leaving Râmên furious. In his rage he secretly organizes a few young Rind hotheads to raid and kill some of Gôhar’s young camels.
Čâkur comes to know about the deaths of Gôhar’s camels and is in his turn very angry. Gôhar tries to pacify him by telling him that her young camels died a natural death, but Čâkur will have none of it and determines on an all-out fight with Gwaharâm and the Lâšârî. The likely outcome of such a struggle is foreseen by Čâkur’s best friend and chief lieutenant Bîbarg, who seizes the rein of Čâkur’s horse to restrain him. “We will not strike down the whole realm for the sake of a woman’s camels.” Bîbarg is taunted as a coward and lawbreaker by several young Rind heroes, and no one listens to him.
The first battle is joined at the Nalî Defile (near Sibî). After heavy losses on both sides (all descriptions of the actual fighting are very brief) the Lâšârî are victorious, and Čâkur finds himself standing alone, sword in hand, on the field of battle. He is saved by 179

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 179.



Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:42:00 AM
ORAL Literature OF IRANIAN Languages
the generosity of the Lâšârî Nôdbandag (Gwaharâm’s father) who rescues him on his horse Pull. For this act Nôdbandag is reviled and insulted by Gwaharâm. But Čâkur lived to fight another day. 5 Thus the first and most important encounter of the entire thirtyyears’ war. Some other short episodes have been published in the periodical Mâhtâk and elsewhere:
i. The Rind regroup and there is another battle; the outcome is undecided, but many named heroes are killed.
ii. The Nuhânî, another Baloch tribe, join the Lâšârî, and there follows another defeat of the Rind (unpublished).
iii. A very large battle is joined in North Baluchistan near Nuškî, where the Lâšârî suffer a decisive defeat (unpublished). iv. Some years later, Čâkur tries to form an alliance with the “Turks” of Herat. This episode is described in Dames 1907
IV: The “Turks” in question may be troops under Dhu’l-Nûn Beg Arghun, of Kandahar and Herat, c 1500. They are disposed to help Čâkur and the Rinds, but are bribed not to do so by Gwaharâm. Three times Gwaharâm bribes them to summon Čâkur and to set him a hero’s task. Čâkur successfully accomplishes all of the tasks, whereupon the “Turks” assemble an army and together with the Rind fight a successful battle against the Lâšârî below the Bôlân Pass, between Quetta and Sibî.
v. Another battle takes place “much later”; the outcome is undecided, but there are heavy losses on both sides (unpublished).
vi. The “Turks” again agree to fight with Čâkur, and there is a final decisive battle in which the Lâšârî are virtually exterminated, and they play no part in subsequent Baloch history. Gwaharâm escapes with a few followers to the plains of Sind, and Čâkur settles near Sibî, where he builds a palace (some ruins of which are still to be seen). Čâkur sings a lament for the great destruction of the wars: Sêwî, môkal-ên (Sibi, Farewell!); a widelyquoted poem of twelve lines, one version of which is given in Elfenbein 1990, p. 332, no. 1. The text is partly unpublished.

5 The most complete versions of this story are in Dames 1907, II– VIII. A shortened version is given in Baluch 1977, pp. 87– 95, of fifty-six couplets. The unpublished versions I have seen do not add any new details. Perhaps all, up to this point, stem from one original.
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London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 180.
Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:42:30 AM
BALOCHI Literature
Ballads by or about personalities of the Čâkur Cycle
i. Bîbarg (EHB: Bîwaragh, also Bîwragh; Dames 1907: Bîbrak; Arabic Abu Bakr), a Rind, son of Mîr Bahâr Khan, nephew of Čâkur, proverbially brave and wise, a hero of many martial and romantic adventures. There are several ballads about his exploits in Dames 1907, no. XX; in Marri 1970, with titles by the author (Lal Saδô, p. 29 f., 70 lines; Syâlî Ghussawa, p. 34 f., 22 lines; Grânnâz, p. 40 f., 136 lines (= no. 67 in Elfenbein 1990, pp. 390– 98); Ô warnâî, p. 47 f., 62 lines); and in Baluch 1977 (p. 115 f., 50 couplets; p. 157 f., 9 couplets; p. 168, 10 couplets; p. 172 f., 19 couplets; p. 178, 30 couplets). Many of these ballads are said to have been composed by Bîbarg himself; there are many unpublished versions as well. The most interesting of these ballads is titled Grânnâz by Shêr Mohammad, said to be composed by Bîbarg himself. Part of the story of the Rind-Arghun alliance in the thirty years’ War, it deals with the romance between Bîbarg and Grânnâz, who is called “The King of Kandahar’s Daughter.” Bîbarg abducts her from her home in Kandahar and brings her to Sibî. Because of the Rind-Arghun alliance, he cannot expect any sympathy from Čâkur, and so he seeks refuge with Gwaharâm. There is at least one unpublished ballad, purportedly from Bîbarg to Čâkur explaining his actions and asking for forgiveness. Čâkur approves and obtains the retirement of the Arghun army which had arrived in Sibî to take Grânnâz back, and Bîbarg and Grânnâz are married. Marri’s (1970) Ô warnâî (above) is a marriage song, perhaps original.
ii. Haybat(ân) (EHB: Haywatân; Dames 1907: Haibat, Haivtân), a Rind, Bîbarg’s son. Four (or five) heroes come together and make vows. The episode is also known as the “Oaths of the Rinds” (Rindânî Kawl/Kôl ), 6 and there are many versions, of which two are given in Elfenbein 1990 (no. 60, pp. 354– 59; no. 61, pp. 360– 61); Dames 1907 (nos. XII, XIII, XIV); Dames.
6 Qôl is a commonly used etymological spelling of kôl ‘oath’; most Arabic loanwords in Balochi are spelt as in Arabic, as is the case in Persian.
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London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 181.



Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:42:55 AM
ORAL Literature OF IRANIAN Languages
1909 (Part II no. X); Marri 1970 (Qôl Haywatâne, p. 7 f. 52 lines [Elfenbein 1990, no. 62]; Baluch 1977, p. 321 f., 23 lines). The actors are variously named, but the oldest versions name Čâkur, Haybat, Ĵâŕô, and Nôdbandag. Haybat and Ĵâŕô are common to all versions known to the present writer. Haybat swears not to return any camels that stray into his herds from elsewhere. Some camels from Čâkur’s herd stray into Haybat’s. Čâkur prepares to fight, but a conciliation is effected, and Čâkur allows Haybat to keep the camels. (The clearest published version is in Dames 1907, no. XII).
iii. Jâŕô, a Rind. One of the “oath-takers” (see above). His part in this episode is given in Dames 1907, no. XIII; Elfenbein 1990 no. 60; ŠMM (Qôl Ĵâŕôê, p. 15 f., 36 lines); Baluch 1977 (pp. 314– 18, 11 couplets). Ĵâŕô, known as “the one of the sour answer” (ĵawr ĵawâb), swears that he will kill anyone who touches his beard, or who kills his friend Haddê. Čâkur induces Ĵâŕô’s child’s nurse to get the child to touch his father’s beard; the child is duly killed by his father. Čâkur later organizes a horse race, when Haddê touches Ĵâŕô’s beard; Haddê is killed by Šâhô, Ĵâŕô’s nephew. Finally, Ĵâŕô kills Šâhô and buries him together with Haddê in one grave. There are several unpublished ballads relating all or parts of this story.
iv. Nôdbandag, a Lâšârî , one of the “oath-takers.” Known as “the generous” (saxî) or the “gold scatterer” (zar zuwal ), he was a greatly admired personality, and there is a large ballad literature about him, a good part unpublished. Since his father was a Lâšârî and his mother a Rind, he was to some extent plagued by divided loyalties in the Rind-Lâšârî Wars. He rescues the Rind chief Čâkur at the end of the first battle (see above) and has to suffer taunts for his deed (one unpublished ballad of 50 lines gives more details of this incident than others do). Dames 1907, nos. XIII and XIV describe his oath to give all he possessed to anyone who asked for it, and never to touch money with his hands. (Cf. also Elfenbein 1990, nos. 60 and 61). There are also versions in ŠMM (Lôlî p. 92 f., 110 lines) and Baluch 1977 (p. 224 f., 31 couplets). Čâkur makes a hole in Nôdbandag’s moneybag, and the coin in it falls out, but is not collected by iii. iv. 182

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 182.



Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:43:41 AM
BALOCHI Literature
Nôdbandag. (An unpublished ballad describes how the coins were collected by a troop of poor women who were gathering tamarisk branches for kindling; there is an interesting debate on “stealing by finding”). In another ballad Čâkur gets a minstrel (omb) to demand Nôdbandag’s property, and Nôdbandag gives him everything, even the shirt off his back. Several other unpublished ballads describe in detail how a musk-camel (a camel whose mouth has been sweetened with musk) arrives at Nôdbandag’s house in the middle of the night, laden with rich clothes and other goods.
v. Rêhân Rind, “the Bard” (lângaw). Besides the ballad mentioned above for the Čâkur Cycle (1.3, above) there are ballads given in ŠMM (Kûnĵe mahδaw, p. 20 f., 49 lines), and in Baluch 1977 (pp. 305– 13, 31 couplets), which tell the story of his love for Sangî, and the accident in which he wounds his own horse, and the animal later dies. There are also several unpublished ballads (supposedly composed by him) in which he (a) swears revenge for the slaughter of Gôhar’s little camels; (b) laments the death of Sâlô, a mistress; (c) describes in a battle poem a skirmish with the Arghuns.
vi. Râmên Lâšârî , said to be the author of several unpublished ballads, in which (a) he swears that he was the winner of the horse race with Rêhân Rind; (b) he encourages Gwaharâm to continue fighting the Rinds after his severe defeat near Nushkî (see above 1.3, iii); (c) his death in battle is also sung, by an unnamed bard, in an unpublished ballad.
vii. Bîbarî, the wife of umar, chief of the Hôt tribe. In a famous incident of the Thirty years’ War, the “Episode of the Lizard,” a lizard runs into her house, pursued by two boys from the Kalmatî tribe. Bîbarî bars the way to them, saying that the lizard is her refugee and under her protection. The boys do not listen and kill the lizard. Bîbarî complains to her husband upon his return home, and, furious, he organizes a bloody attack on the whole Kalmatî tribe. An inter-tribal feud develops out of this fighting, lasting several generations until both sides are exhausted. There is reason to date the poem to the eighteenth century. 183

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 183.


Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:44:07 AM
ORAL Literature OF IRANIAN Languages
There are several ballads describing Čâkur’s fighting as a freebooter for the Mughal Emperor Homâyûn when he marched on Delhi in 1555 to recover his throne from Šêr Šâh. There is a tradition that Homâyûn was a refugee amongst the Baloch after 1540, when Šêr Šâh drove him out. In Dames 1907, no. XVI, there is a ballad on this subject, ascribed to Šâhzâd, a son of Čâkur. Other campaigns by Čâkur in Panjab and Multan are described in a ballad printed in Dames (1909, pp. 10– 11), under the heading “Legendary History of the Baloches.” However, this episode, as well as Čâkur’s fighting for Homâyûn, has genuine historical credentials. I have attempted a reconstruction of Dames’ ballad XI (Elfenbein 1985).
The Dôdâ Bâlâč Cycle
The next most important cycle is certainly the Dôdâ Bâlâch Cycle, which is probably to be dated in the eighteenth century, perhaps 1750 or later. The cycle is important for several reasons. Whilst none of it can be assigned a definite historical niche, it is impressive for its realism, and its often personal styles of narration make it come very much alive. Some of the ballads are probably contemporary with the events described in them. The same transmission problems obtain as in the Čâkur Cycle.
The lady Sammî and her husband, members of the Bulêdî tribe, come as refugees to Dôdâ, overall chief of the Gôrgêĵ tribe, in the Rind confederation. Sammî’s husband dies and, as often happens, there is a disputed inheritance. Sammî withholds from her dead husband’s heirs the part of the herds which are her own property, which by riwâĵ she is entitled to do. Most versions then describe a raid on her cattle by Mîr Bîbarg, a Bulêdî chief, which he dares to do in broad daylight. While this takes place, Dôdâ lies asleep in the sun and does nothing.
Dôdâ is rudely awakened by two women relatives, who tell him what has happened. Dôdâ is very reluctant to undertake countermeasures, but after taunts and jibes by a whole group of women, who accuse him of cowardice and law-breaking, Dôdâ reluctantly gathers together a small band of men and sallies forth to meet Bîbarg 184

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 184.
Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:44:34 AM
BALOCHI Literature
at the Garmâp Pass near Sangsilâ in Bugî country (south-east of Sibî), and after a short and bloody encounter he is killed. T h e r e is a rather extensive ballad literature about Dôdâ, mostly unpublished. Many accounts describe subsequent long-continued fighting between the Gôrgêĵ and the Bulêdî, in which explicit comparison is made with the Rind-Lâšârî Wars of long before, and Dôdâ is often compared in them with Čâkur. But the Gôrgêĵ are always on the defensive against the Bulêdî, who are superior both in numbers and in strength. At last the Gôrgêĵ are virtually exterminated; only Dôdâ’s family is left, together with his brother Bâlâč and his halfbrother Nakîb.
Nakîb, whose mother was a black slave-girl, is the more mettlesome of the two, whilst Bâlâč hesitates to take action, like Dôdâ. years pass (in some versions three) in which Nakîb continually exhorts his brother to action, but without success. At last, after a dream (impressively described in one unpublished ballad), Bâlâč decides to act; and together with Nakîb the two alone proceed to harry the Bulêdî over their whole territory, said to extend from Sibî as far as the Indus, the two of them slaying three-score-andone warriors in one oft-described encounter. In a later battle, when Bâlâč and Nakîb gain reinforcements, Bîbarg himself is slain, and the remaining Bulêdî migrate to southern Sind.
Many of the ballads (published and unpublished) narrate in great detail the initial incident, where women taunt Dôdâ, and later Bâlâč, for indecision and evasion of duty. There are also several ballads in which the shame and doubt of Bâlâč feature prominently; all versions have rousing urgings to action by Nakîb.
Nearly all of the dialects of Balochi spoken in Pakistan are used in the written transcriptions of the oral recitals of this cycle. Especially notable is an Afghan Raxšânî version of the Bâlâč-Nakîb exchanges collected by zarubin (1930, pp. 664– 68), which gives 155 lines of a version of the Balâč-Nakîb story (with a Russian translation). None of the sources I have seen or heard carries the whole story. Besides that of zarubin, the following publications contain parts of it:
i. Baluch 1977, pp. 401– 10, in EHB 29 couplets; Bâlâch is said to be the author. 185

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 185.



Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:44:56 AM
ORAL Literature OF IRANIAN Languages
ii. ŠMM in EHB (pp. 149, Bâhô, 45 lines; p. 151 f., Huδâ čôn a-kant, 103 lines; p. 157 f., Gôn baδân, 66 lines; p. 163, Bašârat, 107 lines; p. 172 f., Kôlanî balâ, 74 lines; p. 176f., Abêd ža, 29 lines).
iii.  Dames 1907, no. XVIII, in which Bâlâč himself appears to be the poet (“Bâlâč sings”), three ballads are given, all in EHB (no. 1, 45 lines; no. 2, 56 lines; no. 3, 48 lines).
iv.  Elfenbein 1990, (no. 57, 27 lines; no. 58, 47 lines; no. 59, 67 lines, mainly in Ra; but no. 59 in Ke).
V. Barker and Mengal 1969, II, (pp. 288– 92, 65 lines, in Ke from a Ra reciter. For the content, see Elfenbein 1990, no. 59). iv. v.
Hammal Ĵîhand
The many ballads about the struggles of Hammal Ĵîhand with the Portuguese in the sixteenth century also form a cycle. Hammal Ĵîhand, “Sultan of Kalmat” on the Makrân coast, was chief of the Hôt tribe. Most of the ballads about him concern a final naval battle with the Portuguese, which most likely took place some time after 1550. Nowhere is the Portuguese commander named, but if there is a connection with the torching of the Makrân seaports Gwâdar and Pasnî in 1581, 7 Hammal might also have been concerned. Portuguese archives have not been consulted, so that at present nothing more definite can be said. The ballads describe land skirmishes and naval engagements between the Portuguese and Baloch forces under Hammal, during many years. In a final battle (the central event of most ballads) Hammal was defeated and taken prisoner, and then deported captive either to Goa or to Portugal (ballads differ). Efforts to ransom him failed, and the Portuguese tried to persuade him to settle and take a European wife. Hammal refused, finally dying in prison. There is said to be a local custom in Kalmat of women mourning for Hammal by not washing their hair on Saturdays.
Some ballads describe in colorful detail the reasons for Hammal’s refusal to take a European wife: it was mainly the “unclean” customs of non-Muslim Europeans which revolted him. There is a short extract about this cycle in Elfenbein 1990 (p. 272), but it
7 In some versions Tîz is given for Pasnî. 186

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 186.

Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:45:21 AM
BALOCHI Literature
probably dates from the nineteenth century. Other texts are to be found in:
i. Baluch 1977 (pp. 353– 60, in EHB, 27 couplets); other ballads of the cycle are to be found ibid., pp. 360– 83; some are said to have been written by Hammal himself and sent as letters to Kalmat (this seems very unlikely, since such letters must have been written in Persian, always the written language of the Baloch).
ii. ŠMM, p. 75 f., Hammal o Šêr, about an encounter with a lion (one example of several ballads on this theme, 99 couplets). iii. Elfenbein 1990 (no. 561, of 60 lines), in the form of a dialogue with Čâkur, a challenge to combat. Quoted in Sarawânî dialect, it is the only example of the sort I know, but this may not be significant.
iv. Barker and Mengal 1969 (II, pp. 306– 13, 28 lines), in a Raxšânî greatly mixed with Coastal dialect. It is certain that Hammal’s dialect was the Coastal dialect of Kalmat, and the Coastal dialect forms of this ballad were probably injected by a Raxšânî reciter to increase its credibility.
Only passing note can be taken of other classical balladry by other bards/actors of the years before the eighteenth century. The events described, mainly martial, seem likely to be authentic, but it is difficult to vouch for the authorship or the contemporaneity of the ballads. In Baluch 1977 (Ch. 4), a (weak) case is made for such warriorballadeers as Šâhdâd, Hârîn, Mîrhân Rind, Šêh Isâ Kahêrî, to name only the best known, and Baluch gives some specimens of poetry perhaps written by some of them, all in Eastern Hill Balochi.
Some mention should be made of the fairly large amount of extant verse, some published, most not, concerning the “War of the Rinds and the Dôdâîs.” Dames 1907 has no less than eight ballads about this war, in no. XVIII, with a grand total of 236 lines. Gul Khan had a high opinion of these pieces. Baluch (1977) has also printed three ballads of this group, with a total of 48 couplets. The main content is as follows: When Mîr Čâkur and many Rinds advanced on Delhi c. 1555 as part of the army of Humâyûn, other Rinds deserted him and returned under Biĵĵar westwards back towards the Indus, where they met the Baloch Dôdâîs, who had long 187

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 187.

Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:46:29 AM
 

ORAL Literature OF IRANIAN Languages
been settled in the Indus Valley. The latter were allied with Čâkur, and an armed struggle ensued. The (unpublished) ballads narrate a long and pitiless struggle, which only ended with a division of the country, with Biĵĵar’s Rinds settling in the Derâjât, and the Dôdâîs the area around Dera Ghazi Khan, where they were Nawabs until the end of the eighteenth century.
2. Literature of the post‑classical period: the eighteenth century
Ballads
There exists a number of long ballads which could date from the eighteenth century, mostly based on well-known Persian or Arabic tales, such as Leylâ and Majnun, or Širin and Farhâd: these two have been especially widely imitated in Balochi.
Leylâ and Majnun
There is a selection from the Leylâ story in Balochi in Baluch 1977 (pp. 496– 508, 44 couplets, author unknown). But in Dames 1907, no. XXXVII, there is a much longer selection of 101 lines (given also in Dames 1909 II, pp. 3– 4). The version in Baluch 1977 is more pedestrian, being mainly a bare outline of the tale, whereas that given in Dames has been transformed into a local Balochi tale of tragic love set in Eastern Hill territory and largely re-written. A prose version of this tale as well as a local variant is to be found in Elfenbein 1983.
Širin and Farhâd
Extracts of a Balochi version of the tale Širin and Farhâd have been published in Baluch 1977 (pp. 508– 15; 23 couplets), and assigned by him to an anonymous poet of the seventeenth century, on unstated 188

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 188.



Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:46:57 AM
BALOCHI Literature
grounds. Dames 1907 (no. XL) gives a slightly longer version of 52 lines. No doubt Dames is right in supposing that the Pârât of the Balochi poem is Farhâd, and in assigning the poem to the eighteenth century or later.
Dôstên and Šîrên
Of greater interest is the purely Balochi verse tale of Dôstên o Šîrên, of which a shortened version of 44 couplets has been given in Baluch 1977, pp. 484– 90. The author assigns the story to the seventeenth century, mainly on grounds of its content, naively not considering that any poet might compose a poem about the days of yore. All others, including Gul Khân, assign the original ballad to the eighteenth century. It seems that the style of the ballad fits better with the uncomplicated eighteenth century style, and that references to earlier events are anachronisms. The version in Dames 1907 (no. XLI) is composite and in essence cannot be old (e.g. the “Arghun” capital Herat is given as “Arand”, a small village in EHB territory, certainly a corruption of Balochi Harêw, even if genuine). ŠMM (p. 135 f.) gives a version of 112 lines, which he calls Šîrên. The leading poet of the modern period, Gul Khan Nasîr, has used the story as the basis for an impressive modern epic in seven parts, which he published as a book in Quetta in 1964. There are long extracts from it in Elfenbein 1990, pp. 203– 55. The story in outline runs as follows:
The Rind Dôstên is betrothed to the lady Šîrên. One day the “Arghun Turks” make an attack on their village, killing a few of its inhabitants, and carry off Dôstên as a prisoner to the town of “Arand” (Gul Khân writes resp. Mughals, and Herat). Dôstên is held captive for years, and in the early part of his captivity he and Šîrên are allowed to pass written messages, which later gradually cease. Šîrên is betrothed by her parents to another, also called Dôstên. Meanwhile the captive Dôstên is made a groom of the governor’s horses, which function he fulfills so successfully that in a few years he is made head groom.
But he never forgets Šîrên, and later by means of a ruse he makes his escape and rides home to his village, just in time to hear that
189

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 189.

Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:47:23 AM
ORAL Literature OF IRANIAN Languages
Šîrên is about to be married to the other Dôstên. Disguising himself and his companions as minstrels, Dôstên sings a wedding song, one which had been written and sent to him long before by Šîrên (so Šîrên is a poet, and both are literate: in which language?) Šîrên recognizes both the singer and the song, and requests to be released by the other Dôstên, who gallantly consents; the first Dôstên and Šîrên are wedded amid general rejoicing.
Šêh Murîd and Hânî
This also appears to be a purely Balochi tale (šêh < Arabic shaykh). This is a very popular story, dating from the eighteenth century, about which many ballads have been composed. (There are also many modern versions.) Many of the older ballads have been published, e.g. in Dames 1907, no. XXII; in ŠMM (pp. 59– 63, 103 lines, Durrdânaγên Hânî; pp. 64– 66, 60 lines, Ašiqê ganôx). Baluch 1977 gives an especially good selection of five specimens (pp. 244– 56, 26 couplets; pp. 257– 65, 30 couplets; pp. 266– 67, 9 couplets; pp. 269– 70, 6 couplets; pp. 271– 99, 113 couplets). Many shorter specimens have been published in Mâhtâk Balôčî and Nôkên Dawr, and there are countless unpublished examples, mostly shorter episodes from the tale.
Šêh Murîd is said in several ballads to be a “follower of Čâkur,” and is confused in at least one ballad version of the “Four Vows” story (see above) with Nôdbandag (see also Elfenbein 1990, pp. 360– 61). Great generosity is admired as the highest of virtues amongst the Baloch. The story goes as follows:
Murîd is affianced to Hânî, but Čâkur demands her for himself. Murîd generously gives her up and then, overwhelmed with regret, goes away on Hajj to Mecca. He becomes a wandering faqîr and in his wanderings returns several times to his home in disguise, to steal glances at Hânî— his love gives him no peace. On one such visit he is recognized and a Great Jirga is convened. Čâkur agrees to give Hânî up to him, but Murîd refuses, saying that his many years as a wandering beggar have made him unfit for her. He departs, riding his camel and singing love songs in the desert.
190

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 190.


Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:48:21 AM
BALOCHI Literature
The tale/ballad of ʿIsâ and Barî This is probably of Sindhi origin. The 35-line version in Dames 1907(no. LIII) is fairly typical, although it is in Eastern Hill Balochi. Several other versions in Kêčî, Raxšânî, and Coastal dialect— the Coastal versions are the only ones without admixtures— have been published in Mâhtâk Balôčî. The story is well known. ʿIsâ is a wanderer, but Barî sits alone in the desert. ʿIsâ inquires of Barî how he lives, and Barî answers and shows him the power of God, who then makes a tree sprout from the ground in the forenoon, put forth buds at noon, bear fruit in the early afternoon, and ripe fruit by the afternoon prayers.
Known poets
Here we come to identified poets, about whom there is some information, albeit little. There is space here for only the most important.
Ĵâm Durrak
The most notable, and also the earliest of these is Ĵâm Durrak, chief poet at the court of Nasîr Khân I of Kalat. His exact dates are not known. It seems quite likely that his oeuvre was written down in his lifetime, but no written remains have been preserved. He was a very popular poet, composing mostly short lyrical pieces in Co dialect. His best work is very individual, characterized by very short lines of e.g. five syllables with an irregular rhyme. A sample of his poetry is given in Elfenbein 1990 (pp. 257– 71), in which an attempt is made to give a critical text. The same cannot be said of Dames’ examples (1907, nos. XLII– XLVI), transposed into Eastern Hill Balochi as if Durrak’s work were that of an anonymous folk poet. There are also many ballads attributed to him because of his fame, on most doubtful authority. The first attempt to collect his poetry in booklet form, Durr-čîn by Ahmad Bashir Balôch (1963),
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Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 191.

 
Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:48:47 AM

ORAL Literature OF IRANIAN Languages
is not a critical edition and many of the poems are of doubtful attribution. A poor specimen of four couplets attributed to him is given in Baluch 1977 (p. 75), and several issues of Mâhtâk Balôčî contain examples.
A notion of the verse of Durrak can be obtained from the following short love lyric, hitherto unpublished. It is untitled. 8
1. tau-ê girdagên bagg Thou art a wandering string of camels man godaw-ân; I am (thy) troop of horse 2. tau-ê rôč nêmrôč Thou art the day at midday man arnaw-ân; I am (thy) evening
3. tau hâkân lêflê Thou liest on the ground man čittir-ân; I am (thy) mat
4. tau pâdân šapâd-ê Thou art barefoot man littir-ân; I am (thy) shoe
5. tau-ê syâhên syâhmâr Thou art a black snake man ĵôgsar-ân; I am a snake-charmer
6. mândrân ĵanânâ In chanting charms dast-it girân I seize thy hand
Mullâ Fazl
Mullâ Fazl of Mand, a village just to the east of the Iranian border in the Kêč valley (but whose dialect is Coastal), is reputed to be the author of many fine ballads, of which one is given in Elfenbein 1990, p. 272. Several of his longer works have been printed in Mâhtâk Balôčî, and much unpublished work has been collected.
ʿIzzat Lallâ
ʿIzzat Lallâ of Panjgûr in east Makran probably lived into the early nineteenth century. He composed his work in Raxšânî, his native dialect, perhaps the first to do so. A short specimen of his poetry
8 Taken from a badly copied Ms. in Qômî’s possession, the text given here is a reconstruction in Durrak’s original Coastal dialect. The rhyme is suddenly broken in the last couplet. The rhythm is syllabic, with 5-syllable lines alternating with 4-syllable ones. 192

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 192.
Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:49:20 AM
BALOCHI Literature
is given in Elfenbein 1990, p. 274, and a longer poem on pp. 302– 5. Not much of his work has been preserved; what has survived has been published mainly in Mâhtâk Balôčî.
Known poets
3. the nineteenth century
Many poets of the nineteenth century are known, and a fair amount of their work has been preserved. The following, in particular, are worthy of note.
Mullâ Ibrâhîm
Mullâ Ibrâhîm of Sarâwân in Persian Baluchistan. An example of his poetry is given in Elfenbein 1990, pp. 274– 81. Some other specimens of his verse have been collected and printed in Mâhtâk Balôčî, often with errors. His dialect was Sarawânî.
Mullâ Bampuštî
Mullâ Bampuštî, who lived near Bahô Kalât, also in Persian Baluchistan, was a prolific poet. ʿIsâ Qômî had collected much of his work, which was published in Mâhtâk Balôčî. An example is given in Elfenbein 1990, pp. 282– 86. The dialect is Coastal.
Mullâ Bahâdur
Mullâ Bahâdur from Mand, was a more important poet than the above. He is noted mainly for the technical accomplishment of his verse, which employs an exceptionally long line, sometimes of fifteen syllables, in strict rhythm. An example of his work is given in Elfenbein 1990, pp. 286– 88. Much of his work was collected by Gul Khan, but it unfortunately remains unpublished. His dialect is Coastal. 193

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 193.

 
Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:49:56 AM
ORAL Literature OF IRANIAN Languages
Fakîr Šêr-jân
Fakîr Šêr-jân of Nushkî (Balochi Nôškê) composed his verse in Raxšânî, like ʿIzzat Lallâ. His style is difficult, characterized as it is by the over-use of elliptical expressions, as well as other obscurities. Two examples of his work are given in Elfenbein 1990, pp. 286– 97. Much of his poetry has been collected by Abdullâ-jân Jamâldînî and published in Mâhtâk Balôčî. The mixture of dialects, Raxšânî with occasional Coastal forms (not always correct) is characteristic of his poetry.
Mast Tôkalî
Mast Tôkalî, also known as Tôkalî Mast (Tawq ʿAlî Mast) was a very well-known poet of the nineteenth century who composed in Eastern Hill Balochi. The specimen given in Elfenbein 1990, pp. 298– 300 was collected by the late Mithâ Khan Marî, the leading authority on Eastern Hill Balochi poets. Tokali’s style was more “learned” than most, with many Persianisms.
Rahm ʿAlî Marî
Rahm ʿAlî Marî was a Marî poet (in Eastern Hill Balochi) of the late nineteenth century, who composed mainly occasional poetry. Mithâ Khan Marî collected most of his work from local Marî ômbs. His “Song of the Battle of Gumbad” is one of his best works, a long ballad of 810 lines, about half of which is printed in Elfenbein 1990, as no. 53 (the remaining lines are in Elfenbein 1994).
The nineteenth century did not see any production of prose that can be called literature. There was of course much narrative prose in the form of stories and tales, and a representative collection of some of it is to be found in Dames 1909, and in Lewis (1855). Geiger (1889, 1893) also published some short specimens. All of these texts are in Eastern Hill Balochi.
194

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 194.
Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:50:20 AM
BALOCHI Literature
4. the Modern period
Writers in Balochi began to proliferate in the 1930s, magazines and other journals were started in India, and in British Baluchistan some of them found occasional space for snippets of Balochi literature, both classical and contemporary. Most of these publications had a rather short life, with a very small readership and exiguous finances. Academies were also founded after 1947 in Pakistan to promote Balochi culture. Outside Pakistan very little was done.
Prose composition also began to play a part, especially as essays and short stories. Some drama was also produced, and even a novel or two written. Folktales were retold more self-consciously, and attention was paid to develop a more sophisticated narrative style, often influenced by English and American writing. In the space available, no more than a sketchy outline of this modern writing can be given here.
The two volumes of “Balochi Tales” published by zarubin in 1932 and 1949, collected in Marv (Turkmenistan) in the Afghan Raxšânî dialect, hardly merit the name of literature, baldly narrated as the tales are, without either style or talent. They thus contrast notably with the tales in Dames 1909.
There is no doubt that the political environment in the 1930s had a marked effect on establishing the written word as a force in Baloch life for the first time. This led to the founding of one of the first newspapers of the 1930s: Mohammed Hoseyn Unqa (Anqâ) published a weekly newspaper from Mach, Bôlân, mainly in urdu, but now and again there was something in Balochi too. unqa was one of the first to interest himself in written Balochi, and did much to establish its written form, using the script conventions of urdu.
(ʿAbd-al-Wahid) Âzât Ĵamâldînî (1912– 81) and his younger brother Abdullâ-jân (b. 1922) devoted their lives to the service of Balochi literature, the former being the founding editor of the “monthly” Mâhtâk Balôčî from 1956 (published irregularly for more than twenty years). The latter was the first Professor of Balochi in Pakistan (at the university of Baluchistan, Quetta), and both brothers were ardent collectors of classical Balochi ballads as well.
195

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 195.
Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:50:44 AM
ORAL Literature OF IRANIAN Languages
The Balôčî Zubânê Dîwân (Balochi Language Group) was founded in Quetta in 1951, the first institution of its kind, by a small group of enthusiasts as a publishing house. It lasted until 1953, and can be regarded as a forerunner of the later Balochi Academies. The Balôčî Zubânê Dîwân’s most important publication was probably Gul Khan Nasir’s Gulbâng. Gul Khan (1914– 83) was perhaps the most important Balochi poet of his time. He published some five volumes of verse. He was, for most of his life, ardently engaged in politics, and both in British times and especially after the creation of Pakistan he saw the inside of jails, sometimes for prolonged periods. He felt it as his principal task to further Balochi national sentiments, and to that end he wrote a great deal of verse including the powerful ballad Byâ, ô Balôč! (Come, ye Baloch!), in the 1940s, which became a sort of national anthem. He was appointed Minister of Education in the provincial government of Baluchistan after the elections of 1971, but that government lasted only nine months before being dismissed, and Gul Khan, together with other leading members of the government, was sent to jail for many years.
The first Balochi Academy was founded in Karachi in 1958, and lasted until 1964. Of major importance, amongst much other publishing activity, was their publication in 1959 of Mistâg, an anthology of the poetry of twenty-one modern poets, each poet being represented by several of his shorter works. But permanence had to await the foundation of the Balochi Academy of Quetta in 1961: this institution has survived up to the time of writing (1998) and has published more than seventy-five books, mostly in Balochi.
In Elfenbein 1990 there is to be found a necessarily limited but useful choice of the works of some well-known writers: there are seventeen short stories and twenty-one poems of authors who were living at the time of writing, including Unqa, Âzât Ĵamâldînî, ʿIsâQômî, and several others, with ten poems by Gul Khan, including a long extract from his Dôstên o Šîrên. Also included are four essays and a radio drama. It is, of course, invidious to single authors out for mention or omission in any short list of living writers, but as a guide to some
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Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 196.

Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:51:09 AM
BALOCHI Literature
of the best known, the following may serve, in addition to those mentioned above: ʿAbbâs ʿAlî Zîmî, short stories, poems; Abdul Qâdîr Nûrî, short stories; Ahmad zahîr, poems, essays, b. 1944; Atâ Šâd, poems, b. 1939; Sayyed Hâšemî, essays, poems, novels, 1926– 80; Mohammad Ashâq Samîm, poems, b. 1923; Murâd Sâhir, poems, b. 1927; Ne’mat-Allâh Gičkî, essays, short stories; Sûrat Khan Marî, short stories, essays. For a much more complete list, see Jahani 1989.
5. Miscellaneous verse
This category of poetry does not strictly qualify as literature, but it is worth presenting a short list and description of what has been published:
songs –
– Hâlô , a marriage song sung during the three days of preparation of the bride for the ceremony, usually sung by one woman singer, and interspersed with choruses by other women.
- Laylarî (laylô), a girls’ song.
-Nâzînk , a girls’ love song.
-Môrô , a love song sung by men or women, sometimes with accompaniment
-Lîkô , perhaps the best known, a work or travel song.
-Zahirôk , a song of separation, yearning and homesickness.
-Môdag , an elegy, sung by women mourners (modakašš ) at a wake. (Examples of all these are to be found in Barker and Mengal 1969 II, pp. 328– 49; all are in Raxšânî.)
-Dastânag , a short song sung with the accompaniment of the nar flute (see Dames 1907, no. LXIII, with remarks in Vol I, pp. 184– 85).
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Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 197.

Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:51:51 AM
ORAL Literature OF IRANIAN Languages
Riddles and conundrums Examples are given in Dames 1907, no. LXIV; cf. Vol. I, pp. 195– 96. All in Eastern Hill Balochi, called Buj(h)ârat. Elfenbein 1983 (pp. 112– 17) contains a collection of thirty-six, in Co dialect; they are here called habr/pahêlî.
Proverbs See Elfenbein 1989, where thirty-two proverbs are given, in various dialects. abir (n. d.) also has a large collection.

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. (Editor); Marzolph, Ulrich (Editor); Yarshater, Ehsan (Editor). History of Persian Literature, Volume XVIII : Oral Literature of Iranian Languages, Volume 2 : Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik.
London, GBR: I.B.Tauris, 2010. p 198.
Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: AhmedHout on September 26, 2011, 12:53:02 AM
Shalla shoma e nebshtank dost be, u nap daa.
 
 shome heyr loutouk
 
Ahmed Hout Baloch
2011-9-26
Title: Re: Balochi Oral Literature
Post by: Zahida Raees Raji on October 25, 2011, 12:23:17 PM
برات احمد ھوت،
سلام ءُ دروت ءُ دراہبات اِت،

چہ دل ءِ جھولانکی ءَ شمئے منہ واراں پہ چوشیں گراں بہائیں نبشتانک ءِ پٹ ءُ پول کنگ ءُ پہ باسک ءَ دیم ءَ یارگ۔
شمئے اے جُہد پہ وانوکاں ہجبر بے نپ نہ بیت۔
وژنام بات اِت
شمئے کستر
زاہدہ رئیس راجی