Author Topic: Balochistan in a federation  (Read 2482 times)

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

Offline Perozai R!nd

  • Baloch
  • Creative Baask
  • ***
  • Posts: 2685
  • Karma: 75
    • Baask - The Home Of Balochi Language & Literature
Balochistan in a federation
« on: July 24, 2006, 02:26:52 PM »
Balochistan in a federation
By Mohammad Asghar Khan



AS the election planned for October draws nearer, the government should give a serious thought to the creation of a federal structure in which the provinces should be given their rightful place in a true federation. The importance of this should not be minimized and the history of these provinces as well as their experience of the last fifty years should not be ignored.

Of the four provinces of Pakistan, Balochistan has a special geographical and historical position. Because of its location, it has been isolated culturally, socially and economically from the areas that constitute Pakistan today. Its location and history give it a distinctive character and position, an understanding of which is essential for a realistic appreciation of the federal character of the state.

Punjab, even when it was not the largest province of Pakistan, enjoyed power and influence far more than its size and number would have justified. The fact that the armed forces were largely from this province and that they had begun to exercise political power further reduced the political influences of the other provinces including the majority province of East Pakistan. Of the four remaining provinces of Pakistan, each has a distinctive character.

The 50 years of Pakistan have to some extent changed the situation and the NWFP and Punjab have come closer economically and politically. This inter-action is greater between these two provinces than that between Punjab and Sindh or between Punjab and Balochistan. In fact, the sense of alienation could be said to be greater between Punjab and the other two provinces of Sindh and Balochistan. Each has its own history and culture and deserves an understanding of its historical background and political individuality.

With an area of 134,000 square miles, roughly about 40 per cent of the total area of the country, Balochistan is the largest of Pakistan’s four provinces. Its area and population is comparable to that of Norway. It is known to have unexplored mineral resources of copper, fluorite, limestone and oil. It is estimated that gold deposits in Balochistan exceed the value of 12 billion dollars and the proven iron-ore deposits are in excess of 23 million tonnes.

It has the reserves to expand considerably its existing production of natural gas, coal, limestone, magnelite, marble, sulphur and barite. Balochistan has a coastline of 750 miles and its port of Gwadar, which because of Chinese help in its development, has acquired greater importance, is barely some 250 miles from the Straits of Hormuz the focal point in the oil route from the Persian Gulf to western Europe and the East. Its frontiers in the north and west, border on Afghanistan and Iran, which have Baloch populations of 100,000 and 1,000,000 respectively.

The province of Balochistan has three broad ethnic groups, which differ racially and linguistically. The Pakhtuns who are about a third of the population, are racially and linguistically akin to the people of Pakistan’s North-West Frontier Province and eastern Afghanistan. The Punjabi settlers who are of relatively recent domicile, number less than 5 per cent of the population of the province. Both the Pakhtuns and the Punjabis are relatively more prosperous than the Baloch and have proportionately greater representation in lucrative jobs in Balochistan.

The Baloch are a collection of some five hundred tribes and clans who have lived in these parts for almost 2000 years. There are various theories about their origin. The one which is widely held is that they were living in the southern coast of the Caspian at the time of Christ. There is evidence to suggest that the Balochi language is derived from a lost language, which flourished in the Caspian area in the pre-Christ era. It is closely related to the Kurdish language in the area south of the Caspian at the conflux of Turkey, Iran and Iraq. Another theory of relatively recent origin is that they are of Semitic origin and came from Aleppo in present day Syria.

Except for relatively brief periods in their history, the Baloch tribes have not been united in one national entity; the process having been rendered difficult by the unusually inhospitable terrain and vast distances separating sparsely populated centres of population. Mir Chakar Khan Rind with his capital at Sibi, ruled over a Baloch tribal confederacy from 1487 until his death in 1511.

Subsequently, the tribes of Balochistan, though they managed to preserve their independence from India’s Moghul rulers’ attempts to subdue them, remained disunited until a century and a half later, when the Ahmadzai tribe established the Kalat confederacy in 1666. It remained a loosely knit confederacy until Nasir Khan, the Sixth Khan of Kalat, who ruled for 50 years in the eighteenth century, formed effective bureaucratic administrative machinery and unified army.

The boundaries of Nasir Khan’s confederacy spilled over into the southern districts of Afghanistan and Dera Ghazi Khan district of Punjab and parts of present-day Sindh. Nasir Khan paid tributes to the Persian emperor Nadir Shah until the latter’s death in 1747 and then to Ahmad Shah Durrani of Afghanistan for eleven years. In 1758, Nasir Khan, after fighting against Ahmad Shah’s forces, established his independence which he and his successors were able to maintain until the arrival of the British in the sub-continent. Between 1805, when Nasir Khan died, and 1876 when the British succeeded in obtaining treaty rights to station troops in Kalat, the Baloch confederacy assumed special importance in the Big Game between Czarist Russia and the British. The British lost no time in establishing themselves in Balochistan after 1876, divided it into a centrally administered area, a reduced Kalat confederacy and smaller principalities with sardars owing allegiance directly to the British Raj through the British agent in Balochistan. The Khan of Kalat, the descendant of Nasir Khan, had special treaty rights with the British government.

When it was decided to partition India, the last ruler of Kalat, Mir Ahmad Khan opted for an independent Balochistan and in 1946 submitted a memorandum to the British Government, which had pledged to “respect the sovereignty and independence of Kalat’. The matter was not resolved by the British to the Khan’s satisfaction and on August 15, 1947, the day after Pakistan emerged on the political map, the Khan of Kalat declared the independence of his state and formed lower and upper houses of the Kalat Assembly.

In the first meeting of the Lower House, in early September 1947, the Assembly confirmed the independence of Kalat, though it favoured an alliance on terms of equality with Pakistan. Amongst those who, in this meeting of the Kalat Assembly spoke in clear terms about the justification for an independent Balochistan was Ghaus Bakhsh Bizenjo, who later became a leader of the National Awami Party and also the Governor of Balochistan for a short period. On April 1, 1948, the Pakistan Army moved into Kalat, forced the Khan to sign an instrument of accession and ended the 225 days’ independence of the Kalat confederacy formed by Mir Ahmad Khan’s ancestors almost 300 years earlier.

Although the flag of revolt was kept aloft by Mir Ahmad Khan’s brother Mir Abdul Karim who moved into Afghanistan, there was no significant military activity in Balochistan for the next ten years. During this period the formation of One Unit uniting West Pakistan including Balochistan into one province in 1955, created resentment and unrest in Kalat and the political circles of Balochistan.

The Khan of Kalat became active in demanding the dissolution of One Unit and with the help of the sardars, organized an agitation against the central government. On October 6, 1958, only a day before Iskander Mirza and Ayub Khan overthrew the civilian government of Feroze Khan Noon, the Khan of Kalat was arrested by the army, as were also a large number of other Baloch leaders. From 1958 for about a decade, military action in Balochistan continued until General Yahya Khan dissolved One Unit and set the stage for the 1970 general elections.




Offline Wadareeg وداریگ

  • Creative Baask
  • ***
  • Posts: 506
  • Karma: 66
Re: Balochistan in a federation
« Reply #1 on: July 24, 2006, 10:07:20 PM »
Thx bro for Above mentioned information.No doubt about pakistan that its a federation but not a country because one country is based on one nation with one language and culture but pakistan is based on 4 different nations with their 4 different cultures,traditions and languages Although there are some countries where more then 250 languages are spoken by people like India but still its a country not a federation reason is they are one nation with different languages only kashmir has some problems with india because that is totly different nation then rest of indians Like i can give you an example of punjab.In punjab you will find saraiki,Hazara and Punjabi with their own languages but still they are united because their culture is same.Pakistan has no history although baluchistan has its own history,punjab has its own history,pakthonistan has its own history and sindh has its own history but you will never ever find the history of pakistan which indicates that its a federation not a country.Word pakistan has No meaning like Baluchistan has some meanings "The land of Baluch People".Punjab has some meanings "The land of Punjabies" And like wise.
 

Offline Perozai R!nd

  • Baloch
  • Creative Baask
  • ***
  • Posts: 2685
  • Karma: 75
    • Baask - The Home Of Balochi Language & Literature
Re: Balochistan in a federation
« Reply #2 on: July 24, 2006, 10:15:05 PM »
Absolutely You Are Right Bro Lion...
Thankx For Clearifying...