Author Topic: history of balochi poetry  (Read 7985 times)

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history of balochi poetry
« on: January 28, 2009, 03:54:57 PM »
    Balochi poetry

The oldest available Balochi poetry is of 16th century which belongs to poetry of Mir Chakar’s era. Of course it is to be said that Balochi poetry and poems existed long before that era in Baloch societies, for the reason that composing of poems surfaced and furthered with evolution of the language. It is also clear from the shape, style of the language of poets in novels that those poetries are not of initial and basic poetry. That is why one can say prior to that era our literature was not passed successfully to us.


Respect to truth, sanctuary, avenges and bravery is the essence of poetry of that period. Poems of that era are more of war ballads and historical nature, and they also include many of the wise-men of the time. In the 18th century vast regions of Balochistan became under a centralised system of governance so urbanisation with its values were evolving which had its effects on Balochi poetry. The romantic style of poetry became far common than war ballad poetry. So sensitivity, love and friendship and above all a message for peace and security emerged. Jam Dorrak was the greatest poets of that time. After Jam Dorrak in the 19th century, a number of famous poets such as Mola Fazol, Mola Qasim, Ezat Panjgori, Mastt Tavakoli, Mola Ibrahim Bahoei, Mola Bohir, Mola Bahram … did rein in Balochi poetry.


In the early 20th century in the subcontinent of India, national movements rose-up, and many political groups and parties were founded and began making efforts against the British colonization of their lands. In Balochistan efforts also were made against British oppression. Rahm Ali was the poet of the time, and his poems are full of freedom seeking and of nationalistic aspiration and character. The rise of freedom seeking movement of Mir Yousof Ali Khan Magasi and his poetry influenced a large number of educated Baloch youths. Not so long time gone by, some Baloch youths such as Gul Khan Naseer and Mohammad Hossain Onga stepped into new era of Baloch poetry.


When Reza Shah invaded western Balochistan with his army and subjected it under his oppressive rule, and his son intensified oppression on Baloch people during his rein, then progress on Balochi literature was an impossible phenomenon. Despite the oppressions, Baloch people constantly made efforts to their ability under those circumstances to prevail their customs and culture. Baloch poets have been furthering in composing of poems in their mother tongue. Baloch people also made the Balochi poems tasteful and splendid by rehearsing them in their weddings and ceremonies.


The new era of Balochi poetry began after the II World War. When India gained its independence, the desire for freedom and national rights was increasing among other nations of the region. In Balochistan such desires were at an optimum level when Pakistan’s army made incursion into Kalat, the capital of eastern Balochistan in 1948, and annexation of Balochistan to Pakistan was declared. In such turbulent circumstances, Baloch nationalists made their efforts more sharp and focused on political and cultural fronts. In Balochi poetry, political thoughts and new styles emerged. Gul Khan Naseer was the leading poet of this caravan. Patriotism, aspiration for independence of mother land, nationalism and progressive movement are the essence and theme of Gul Khan’s poetry.


When Gul Khan and his poetry combined with his struggles gained grounds and popularity in Balochistan, other young Baloch poets with nationalistic tendencies stepped into Balochi poetry. Among these poets, Azat Jamaldini and Mohammad Hossain Onga are well worth mentioning.


If a preview on contemporary Balochi poetry is given, it is abundantly evident that many of poets followed the classical style, and many of them are still following it, though other new styles are evolving and in progress. In today’s Balochi poetry, ‘Gazal’, free verse poetry, English sonnets and Japanese ‘Haaykoo’ are present. The current Balochi poetry is aware of Baloch people’s demands and aspirations, so it is full of patriotic sentiments and reflective of their desire for development and prosperity of Balochistan. Balochi poetry is also longing for respect on humanity, unity, and peace and equality for the whole world.